Sphincter grading

Derived from experience of grading mesorectums it became apparent that the plane of surgery varied widely in the area of the sphincter and that this could be described.  this was first published in association with Dr Iris Nagtegaal.

Definitions sphincter grading

Click above to see examples and the definition of grading the plane of surgery for the anal sphincter

Video of dissection of a cylindrical APE and a standard APE


3D video of a standard APE